Testicular Cancer Treatment
Leading oncologists at Herzliya Medical Center carry out treatment of testicular cancer in Israel. Treatment by HMC staff in Israel uses the most modern methods. Israeli oncologists have been incredibly successful in the treatment of testicular cancer, supported by sophisticated methods of diagnosis and surgical techniques, incorporating the latest research in the field of pharmacology, and radiotherapy.
What is testicular cancer?
Testicular cancer involves two types of malignant tumors, originating from membranes and parenchyma:
Both of the types of malignancies mentioned have subtypes. Testicular tumors, depending on their histological structure, significantly differ in growth rate and tendency to metastasize. Seminomas tend to have a slower growth rate than non-seminomas. The most aggressive forms of testicular cancer are non-seminomas, subtype embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma. Typically, testicular cancer develops after puberty. Most cases are found in patients aged 15 to 55 years.
Causes of Testicular Cancer
Testicular cancer research has identified a number of factors that increase the likelihood of cancer development, including:
- Genetic predisposition. Those with relatives who have had the disease are at slightly higher risk. Higher incidence of this form of cancer has been observed among those who carry certain genetic mutations (such as Klinefelter's syndrome)
- Endemic disease. The highest incidence rates of testicular cancer is seen among residents of Nordic countries
- Cryptorchidism (undescended testicle into the scrotum). Testes found in the abdominal cavity increase risk of malignant transformation. Early surgery for cryptorchidism in children has great preventive value
- Compromised functioning of the testis. Patients with a low percentage of sperm in the semen (sperm count), including those diagnosed with male infertility are also at risk
- Hormonal factors
- HIV-Infected individuals and those living with a clinically acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are more vulnerable to development of the disease
- Many studies have established a link between procedures involving ligation of the spermatic cord (vasectomy) with the development of testicular cancer
Testicular Cancer Symptoms
The first symptom of testicular cancer usually presents as painless increase in size of one of the testicles, eventually causing discomfort. Pain occurs as tumor growth ensues, stretching the capsule of the testis. Difficulty in venous outflow leading to swelling of the scrotum is observed in the early stages. In advanced stages, symptoms include increasing size of regional (inguinal) lymph nodes and signs of metastatic lesions on internal organs. Any increase in the size of the testes as well as the presence of blood in the semen are possible sings of tumor existence and requires immediate clinical treatment.
Diagnosis of Testicular Cancer at HMC in Israel
Specialists at HMC in Israel use the following diagnostic tools specific to testicular cancer:
- Ultrasound examination of the scrotum, testicles, abdomen, and pelvis
- Blood test for tumor markers (alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin fraction, lactic dehydrogenase, and placental alkaline phosphatase)
- Testicular biopsy - an important procedure allowing accurate determination of histological type (final diagnosis)
- Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET-CT).These imaging techniques are used in cases of suspected secondary spread of tumor (metastases diagnosis of testicular cancer)
- Isotope bone scan (with suspected skeletal metastasis)
Testicular Cancer treatment at HMC
Oncologists at HMC in Israel select the type of testicular cancer treatment according to histological classification and stage of tumor spread. The main methods of testicular cancer treatment in Israel are:
- Surgical removal of the primary tumor – involving removal of one or both testicles, as well as any affected lymph nodes and metastases diagnosed. In some cases and with common forms of the disease, debulking surgery increases effectiveness of comprehensive anti-tumor therapy
- Chemotherapy is the main source of treatment for testicular cancer in Israel. Modern anti-cancer drugs for cancer treatment in Israel, are highly effective in the vast majority of forms of the disease
- Radiation therapy for cancer presence in the testes is often used in conjunction with neoadjuvant (pre-surgery) and adjuvant (post-surgery) treatment
The main methods of evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment of testicular cancer are further control determination of the level of tumor markers and locating sites of pathological uptake of the radioactive isotopes by way of a PET-CT scan.
Testicular Cancer Prognosis
Well received treatments for testicular cancer using modern methods of anti-cancer therapies, allow doctors at HMC in Israel to achieve a high percentage (95%) of complete recovery even in cases of advanced metastases. The ability to make accurate diagnosis of testicular cancer, as well as a highly professional approach to treatment of this type of cancer, yield excellent results. Oncologists at Herzliya Medical Center in Israel develop an individual treatment program for each patient, using the most effective systems available. Follow-up throughout treatment and thereafter are necessary to prevent relapse of the disease and allows time to target any appearance of secondary cancer.