Causes of women infertility
A married couple is considered infertile if after a year of regular sexual intercourse (at least once a week) without using any contraceptive means the woman could not get pregnant. WHO statistics shows that 10-15% of couples of reproductive age cannot conceive a child because of infertility. In the incidence of infertility, in women this disease is diagnosed in 30-35% of cases, infertility in men - 35-40%, infertility due to both partners - 20%, infertility due to unexplained reasons - 10-15%.
Over the past 50 years, such statistic has not changed, but there have been significant changes in the causes of infertility. Increasing environmental pollution, changes in the life pace, constant stress and workload, excessive exercises, unhealthy diet, bad habits, insufficient care for one’s own health have a direct negative effect on the human body, and often become concomitant factors for the development of infertility. The tactics used for male and female infertility treatment depends on the cause of infertility.
Let’s consider the main causes of infertility in women
Disturbance or lack of ovulation (anovulation). This is the most common problem causing infertility. Ovulation disorders can occur as a result of various diseases and hormonal dysfunction of the ovaries or brain structures, as a result of which the process of the normal maturation of the follicle is disrupted. As such, the release of an egg from the ovary and hence the pregnancy does not occur. In patients with anovulation, primary amenorrhea, secondary amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, dysfunctional uterine bleeding or cyclic menstrual-like reaction are observed.
Fallopian tube obstruction. In 20% of cases, infertility in women is diagnosed due to fallopian tubes obstruction. After the egg releases from the ovarian follicle, it passes into the ampullary section of the fallopian tube, where the egg and sperm fusion occurs. Next, the fertilized egg falls into the uterine cavity and attaches to its wall. In case of violations in the structure of the fallopian tube, the embryo may not reach the uterine cavity and consolidate in the fallopian tube. In such a way, ectopic (tubal) pregnancy occurs, which can lead to the loss of the fallopian tube. In various pathological conditions, such as chlamydia or ureaplasmosis, complete obstruction of the fallopian tubes may occur, and the fusion of the egg and sperm becomes impossible. Obstruction of the fallopian tubes can appear mainly as a result of abortion, surgery on the pelvic organs, adhesive and infectious processes. Infertility in case of obstruction of the fallopian tubes affects both women who have given birth and those who have not yet given birth. Treatment of infertility with obstruction of the fallopian tubes can be carried out by performing laparoscopic surgery, or by In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).
Distortion of the movement of sperm through the cervix. Normal sperm movement through the cervix can be prevented by the narrowing of the cervical canal and diseased cervical mucus. Cervical mucus is produced by the glands of the cervical canal, and it plays an important role in the movement of sperm. The mucus forms microscopic tubules along which sperm moves. In addition, cervical mucus has a stimulating effect on healthy sperm, retains non-viable sperm and various sperm impurities. During hormonal or infectious disorders the characteristics of cervical mucus are damaged: it thickens and decreases. Thus, sperm cells cannot move and pass into the uterine cavity. Women become infertile. The narrowing of the cervical canal can be either caused by a congenital defect of the reproductive system or acquired as a result of infectious inflammation or surgery. In this case, the treatment of infertility is done by the medical and surgical recovery aimed to achieve normal sperm movement through the cervix. The presence of this cause of infertility is found in 5-10% of infertile women.
Polycystic ovary syndrome. During polycystic, ovary is affected by multiple small cysts. Polycystic ovary develops in the disorder of the ovary function, adrenal glands, hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, that is, the organs of the endocrine system. The danger of polycystic ovaries from the reproductive system occurs a result of hormonal disorders when ovulation does not occur in a particular phase of the cycle. As such, infertility occurs. In addition, the late treatment of polycystosis carries the risk of cancer development.
Various pathologies of the uterus. Infertility in women with pathological conditions of the uterus is in 2-5% of all cases of infertility. The uterine factor of infertility can be either congenital or acquired. Congenital defects of the uterus include, for example, the absence of the uterus or vagina, the T-shaped cavity of the uterus, the underdevelopment of the fallopian tubes and cervix, the vaginal septum, etc. Acquired pathologies of the uterus - polyps of the uterus, submucosal myomatous nodes, injuries of the uterus, etc. Pathology of the uterus is the main cause of the miscarriage during pregnancy. Treatment of infertility in the case of revealed pathologies of the uterus often includes minimally invasive and non-invasive surgical interventions, as well as artificial insemination with IVF.
Endometritis. Inflammation of the uterine lining (endometritis) occurs as a result of diagnostic or therapeutic manipulations in the uterus, curettage when removing polyps or during an abortion, etc. During endometritis foci of uterus infection (Asherman syndrome) develops, which makes it impossible to attach the embryo.
Age. With age, especially after 35 years, the ability of a woman to conceive is reduced significantly.